红色高棉政权统治下的柬埔寨种族灭绝是柬埔寨近代人权史上的一个重要历史事件。种族灭绝发生在1975年至1979年间，估计造成170万人死亡。柬埔寨共产党的思想和政策是激进的左翼共产主义，是马克思主义、斯大林主义和毛泽东主义的混合体。中央常委会是党的权力核心。共产主义意识形态及其本土特征包括商业和城市的消亡、农民的理想化、领土扩张主义、种族歧视和其他社会歧视等内容，最终导致了柬埔寨大屠杀的悲剧。在种族屠杀中，人们被分为“老市民”和“新市民”，后者被严重杀害。受害者还包括宗教团体、包括越南人在内的少数民族、中国人和穆斯林查姆人、一些民族团体。柬埔寨法院特别法庭于2006年开始审理灭绝种族罪，这是一个缓慢的过程，受到时间不足、缺乏资金、外部干预等问题的影响。迄今为止，只有一名红色高棉领导人——Kaing Guek EAV（杜赫同志）被判刑，只剩下两个被告在被告席上。柬埔寨社会的有罪不罚文化阻碍了这一进程。美国和中国等大国担心在冷战期间与朝鲜政权一起演变。法庭的合法性不仅受到柬埔寨国家主权的挑战。
The Cambodian Genocide under the Khmer Rouge regime is an important historical event in the modern history of Cambodia with its human rights. The genocide occurred between 1975 and 1979, causing an estimated 1.7 million death. The ideology and policy embraced by the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) was radical left-wing Communism, a hybrid of Marxism, Stalinism and Maoism. The Standing Committee of the Central Committee of the CPK was the core of power. Ideology of Communism and indigenous features comprises of its contents including perishing of the commerce and cities, idealization of the peasantry, territorial expansionism, racial and other social discrimination, which finally led to the tragic Cambodian Genocide. During the Genocide, people were divided into the ‘old citizens’ and the ‘new citizens’, the latter were severely perished. Victims also includes religious group, ethnic groups including the Vietnamese, the Chinese and the Muslim cham, some national groups. The trial of the genocide has started in 2006, carried out by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), which has been a slow process, being affected by the problems of deficient time, lack of funding, exterior interference, etc. So far, only one Khmer Rouge leader -- Kaing Guek Eav (Comrade Duch) has been sentenced, leaving only two defendants in the dock. The culture of Impunity in Cambodian society hinders the process. Great powers such as the U.S. and China were concerned to have evolved with the regime during Cold War. The legitimacy of the Tribunal was challenged not only by nation sovereignty of Cambodia.
The Khmer Rouge is a horrific disaster to Cambodia, which caused 1.7 million deaths in Cambodia and was remembered as the last genocide in the 20th century. The CPK embraced the ideology of a mixture of Marxist, Maoist and Stalinism. The Genocide between 1975 and 1979 led to 25% percent of reduction in its population, aiming at the ‘new citizens’, the religious groups, ethnic groups as well as national groups. The trial of the Khmer Rouge Genocide was a slow even stagnant going, given the problems of deficient time, lack of funding, exterior interference, etc. whether the ECCC will be able to accomplish its mission remains to be seen in the future. The trial of the genocide marked a new era of human rights protection in Cambodia.